Assistive Technology for the Blind and Low Vision

by Stephanie Arnold


  • Over 34 million Americans suffer from (severe) visual impairments that cannot be corrected with glasses.
  • There are many different types of blindness and low vision impairment, just like any other disability each individuals experience is different
  • Assistive technology allows individuals who are blind or visually impaired to navigate throughout out sighted world
  • Since different people need different technologies for everyday based on their individual needs this is not a completely inclusive representation of all blind tech

Services and Resources for the Blind: Virginia


  • Virginia Federation of The Blind
    •  Provide services and training (free cane)
  • The Library and Resource Center
    • Inventory of adaptive equipment: braille textbooks, audiobooks, software, anda foldable cane folded into 4 sections, the first 3 sections colored white and the bottom section colored redcanes
  • American Council for The Blind
    •  Activate for equality and resources to increase independence, equality, opportunity, and quality of life (provide jobs and services)
  •  MaxiAids and LSSproducts
    • Individual responsibility to find and pay for products and assistive Technology

Low Vision

  • Playing Cards
  • Magnified Telephone Sticker Numbers
    • Also used for keyboards
  • Magnifiers
    • Merlin: desktop magnifier

Daily Living

  • Wake up: Alarm/watch
  • Pick out clothing: Identifier buttons
  • Put on sunglasses: due to irritation from light
  • Brush teeth: Squirt toothpaste in mouth not brush
  • Cooking: Tactile sticker, Use finger to measure amount of substance in measuring cup
  • Eating: White plate on black surface (plate shield)
  • Medication: Use bar code labeler to identify, dropper cover
  • Recreation: listen to audio book, use cell phone, or walk on treadmill (buttons)

blue eye dropper cover attached to a white bottle of eye drops held by a white womanblack pair of sun glassespurple glass plate with a plate shield on one side                                                  bar code labeler reading the bar code on a bottle of medication held by a white hand


  • Tactile Stickers     
  • Bump Dots
  • Clothing Identifiers (shapes)
  • Braille Clothing Identifiers

bump dots of varying textures and colors  clothing identifiers of varying colors and shapes with holes so they can be applied to clothes hangersa pile of clothes labels with different clothing descriptors(e.g. "striped") printed in ink and braille3 sets of tactile stickers(microwave, oven, washer) filled with stickers of varying shapes, each corresponding to a different button on the device(e.g. start, cancel)

Identifiers Continued: Labeling Systems

  •  Voila
  •  Pen Friend  Z Voice
  •  Talking Color Detector

Assistive Technology

  • Voice Recognition Memo Book
  •  Orbit Tracker
  •  Sunu Band
  •  Reizen Talking Watch
  •  Smart Phone (Alexa, Siri, Etc.)

School and Office Use

  •  Talking 10 Digit Calculator
  • Audio Book
  •  Writing Guide Kit
  •  Tactile Pen
  •  Typoscope Check Guide
  •  Bold Line Neon Paper
  •  Computer Software (*jaws, Nonvisual Desktop Access Screen Reader(Text To Speech)

Logo for the JAWS screen reader

talking 10 digit calculator with a pair of headphones             set of typoscopic reading guides of varying sizes and formats3 sheets brightly colored bold line neon paper of varying colors                     typoscope check guide

tactile penaudiobook player


  •  Printer (32 Cell)
  •  Notebook Paper
  •  Stylus Writing Tool
  •  Keyboard Cover
  • Games
  • Watch
  • Clock

black braille keyboard cover   green stylus writing tool      notebook paper32 cell braille printer          braille bingo setbananagrams set with braille letters accompanying black printed letters        tactile clock with bumps to designate the sections of the clock       tactile watch with bumps at various sections of the face to designate the different times





Gastrointestinal Health Technologies

by Owen Baylosis

What is an Ostomy?

An ostomy is a surgery performed to redirect stool or urine  out of the body

  • Reasons
    • Rectum/ Colon cancer
    • Intestinal injury
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Obstruction
    • Diverticulitis
  • Through this surgery, part of the intestine is rerouted through the abdominal wall to create a stoma
    • A stoma is a piece  of intestine that protrudes through the abdominal wall and is used to release waste
    • People with an ostomy will wear an ostomy pouch on the stoma to collect intestinal contents
    • Stomas do not have muscles, so intestinal contents pass into the pouch


Skin barrier being removed from a stoma. The stoma is bright red and roughly the size of a bottle cap. It is right to the left of the ostomate’s naval.

Photo of a healthy stoma. It is bright red and roughly the diameter of a quarter. The ostomate is caucasian.

Types of Ostomies

  • ColostomyDiagram of colostomy in human abdomen; "transverse colon", "descending colon", "ascending colon", "ileum", "end colostomy", "caecum", "sigmoid colon", "rectum", "anus" are labeled
    • Stoma is made from large intestine(colon)
    • May be temporary or permanent
    • May be performed for rectal cancer, diverticulitis, or fecal incontinence


Diagram of where an ileostomy is placed. The ileum and ileostomy are labeled

  • Ileostomy
    • Stoma is made from small intestine(ileum)
    • May be temporary or permanent
    • May be used to treat inflammatory bowel disease or rectal cancer


  • UrostomyDiagram of urostomy in human abdomen; "urostomy" and "piece of ileium used to fashion urostomy" labelled.
    • Ureters are redirected to stoma made from small intestine(ileal conduit)
    • Permanent
    • May be used to treat bladder cancer or urinary incontinence

Non-pouch Procedures

  • Ileoanal Reservoir(J Pouch)Diagram indicates that colon has been removed; ileum(labeled) has been stitched near the anus(labeled) to create an ileoanal reservoir(labeled)Colon and rectum are removed
    • Ileum is connected directly to anus, and reservoir collects stool
    • Used to treat polyps in the colon



  • Continent Ileostomy(Kock Pouch)Diagram shows the colon(labeled) and rectum(labeled) have been removed. The ileum(labeled) is connect to an internal kock pouch(labeled) which is directed to an external stoma(labeled)Internal reservoir made in ileum
    • Drained via catheter, no bag necessary
    • Very delicate procedure, not common
    • For candidates who aren’t good candidates for ileoanal reservoir or don’t want a pouch

Pouching Systems

  • Main pieces are the skin barrier and the pouchFront and back view of a white ostomy pouch with a yellow skin barrier.
    • Skin barrier is adhesive portion attached to the skin
      • Protects skin and holds pouch in place
    • Pouch holds waste
      • Pouches for Ileostomies and Colostomies can be drainable(washed and reused, changed every 3-5 days)
      • Pouches for Colostomies can also be closed, meaning they need to be removed and disposed of(changed after every empty)


  • Many other options as wellShows skin barrier being applied by a latex gloved hand to a white abdomen around a bright red stoma
    • Filters-to prevent gas buildup, but without odor
    • Material variety-opaque or transparent/soft covers
    • Closure systems-clamps or integrated closure
      • Urostomy bags have a spout as opposed to a closable mouth
    • Skin barrier-can vary in flexibility, shape, adhesive

TIES® System

  • OstomyCure, a  company based in Oslo, Norway, claims to have a new technology Peach colored cap next to a titanium mesh tube insert that goes inside the stoma.for ileostomates that removes the need for a bag



Ostomate Lifestyle

  • Diet
    • Chew thoroughly
    • Reduce high fiber foods
    • Dehydration is a side effect, so drink regularly
    • May have to avoid foods such as popcorn and nuts
    • Everyone’s body is different
  • 750,000 to 1 million  Americans have an ostomy
  • While ostomates don’t directly qualify for disability benefits,  according to Social Security Administration, conditions such as IBD do qualify
    • Accessible bathrooms
  • United Ostomy Associations of America

Apps used for Gastrointestinal Health

  • Apps that track the symptoms of users with digestive disorders
    • GI BodyGuard
    • MyGIHealth
    • Apps that are specific to Inflammatory Bowel Disease
      • GI Buddy
      • myIBD
  • PoopMD
    • Allows parents to learn the meanings of their infants’ poop and detect signs of gastrointestinal disorders
    • Can take photos of diapers and analyze color